Symptoms of hemophilia are usually first noticed during infancy or childhood. But some people who have milder forms of hemophilia may not have symptoms until later in life. Although there are different types of hemophilia, the symptoms are the same.
The following are signs of hemophilia that may be noticed shortly after birth:
- Bleeding into the muscle, resulting in a deep bruise after receiving a routine vitamin K shot
- Prolonged bleeding after a male child is circumcised
- In rare cases, prolonged bleeding after the umbilical cord is cut at birth
Other symptoms of hemophilia include:
- Bleeding into a joint or muscle that causes pain and swelling.
- Abnormal bleeding after an injury or surgery.
- Easy bruising.
- Frequent nosebleeds.
- Blood in the urine (hematuria).
- Bleeding after dental work.
Symptoms of bleeding into a joint (hemarthrosis) include:
- Warmth and/or tingling in the joint during the early stages of hemarthrosis. This is called an aura. If bleeding is not treated, mild discomfort can progress to severe pain.
- Swelling and inflammation in the joint, caused by repeated episodes of bleeding. If episodes continue, it may lead to chronic pain and destruction of the joint.
- An infant's or child's reluctance to move an arm or leg because of bleeding into an affected joint, often first noticed when a child begins to walk.
There are many possible symptoms of bleeding into muscle, including:
- Muscle hardening.
- Pain, especially when large muscle groups are affected.
Occasionally, bleeding into certain muscles (forearm, groin, or leg) puts enough pressure on arteries and nerves to cause a complication called compartment syndrome. A compartment syndrome is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment to prevent permanent damage to muscle, bones, and other tissue. Symptoms of compartment syndrome include:
- Weakness and paleness in the affected extremity.
- Swelling and numbness.
- Severe pain during movement.
- Inability to move an extremity (paralysis).